Recent Publications, Papers, and Patents by the Aerospace Technical Staff


Publications and Papers

R. L. Bishop, P. R. Straus, A. B. Christensen, J. H. Hecht, et al., “The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System Experiment on the ISS: Mission Overview,” Proceedings of the SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol. 7438, p. 74380X (Aug. 2009).

R. L. Bishop, A. B. Christensen, P. R. Straus, J. H. Hecht, et al., “The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System on the ISS: Sensor Performance and Space Weather Applications From the Visible to the Near Infrared,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 7438, p. 74380Z (Aug. 2009).

R. L. Bishop, P. R. Straus, A. B. Christensen, J. H. Hecht, et al., “The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System on the ISS: Sensor Performance and Space Weather Applications From the Extreme to the Near Ultraviolet,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 7438, p. 74380Y (Aug. 2009).

J. D. Bray, K. M. Gaab, B. M. Lambert, and T. S. Lomheim, “Improvements to Spectral Spot-Scanning Technique for Accurate and Efficient Data Acquisition,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 7405, p. 74050L (Aug. 2009).

J. D. Bray, L. W. Schumann, and T. S. Lomheim, “Front-Side Illuminated CMOS Spectral Pixel Response and Modulation Transfer Function Characterization: Impact of Pixel Layout Details and Pixel Depletion Volume,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 7405, p. 74050Q (Aug. 2009).

Y. C. Chan, S. K. Karuza, A. M. Young, J. C. Camparo, et al., “Self-Monitoring and Self-Assessing Atomic Clocks,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 330–334 (Feb. 2010).

J. H. Clemmons, L. M. Friesen, N. Katz, Y. Dotan, R. L. Bishop, et al., “The Ionization Gauge Investigation for the Streak Mission,” Space Science Reviews, Vol. 145, No. 3–4, pp. 263–283 (July 2009).

S. A. Cota, C. J. Florio, D. J. Duvall, and M. A. Leon, “The Use of the General Image Quality Equation in the Design and Evaluation of Imaging Systems,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 7458, p. 74580H (Aug. 2009).

J. D. Desain and B. B. Brady, “Thermal Conductivity of Liquid Hydrazine (N2H4) at 293.2 Kelvin and 0.101 to 2.068 Megapascals,” Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 828–835 (Dec. 2009).

K. D. Diamant, “Resonant Cavity Plasma Electron Source,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 37, No. 8, pp. 1558–1562 (Aug. 2009).

B. J. Foran, N. A. Ives, T. S. Yeoh, M. J. Brodie, Y. Sin, N. Presser, M. S. Mason, and S. Moss, “Tomographic Characterization of Dislocations in Failure Regions of Broad Area InGaAs/AlGaAs Strained Layer Single Quantum Well High Power Laser Diodes,” Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 15, No. S2, pp. 598–599 (July 2009).

J. M. Geis, J. Lang, L. A. Peterson, F. A. Roybal, et al., “Collaborative Design and Analysis of Electro-Optical Sensors,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 7427, p. 74270H (Aug. 2009).

J. S. George, R. Koga, and M. P. Zakrzewski, “Single Event Effects Tests on the Actel RTAX2000S FPGA,” 2009 IEEE Radiation Effects Data Workshop, pp. 140–147 (Piscataway, NJ, 2009).

T. P. Graves, R. Spektor, P. T. Stout, et al., “Transient-Mode Multipactor Discharge,” Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, No. 8, p. 083502 (Aug. 2009).

J. H. Hecht, R. Walterscheid, et al., “Backscatter Lidar Observations of Lower Tropospheric Dynamics during Southern California Wildfires,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 66, No. 7, pp. 2116–2124 (July 2009).

M. A. Hopkins, “Editorial Conference Comments by the General Chairman,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 56, No. 6, pp. 3018–3020 (Dec. 2009).

J. F. Johnson and T. S. Lomheim, “Focal-Plane Signal and Noise Model—CTIA ROIC,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 56, No. 11, pp. 2506–2515 (Nov. 2009).

H. A. Katzman, F. D. Ross, and P. R. Valenzuela, “Resiliency of Silicone O-Rings,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 114, No. 2, pp. 843–846 (Oct. 2009).

S. Kenderian, O. Esquivel, K. R. Olson, and E. C. Johnson, “A General Overview of Some Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Techniques for Materials Characterization,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 7425, p. 742506 (Aug. 2009).

S. Kenderian, Y. M. Kim, E. C. Johnson, and I. A. Palusinski, “NDE Methods for Determining the Materials Properties of Silicon Carbide Plates,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 7425, p. 742507 (Aug. 2009).

R. Koga, P. Yu, K. B. Crawford, J. S. George, and M. P. Zakrzewski, “Synergistic Effects of Total Ionizing Dose on SEU Sensitive SRAMs,” 2009 IEEE Radiation Effects Data Workshop, pp. 127–132 (Piscataway, NJ, 2009).

T. T. Lam et al., “Heat Conduction in Two-Dimensional Slabs Subjected to Spatially Decaying Laser Pulses,” Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 18–27 (Mar. 2009).

B. M. Lambert and J. M. Harbold, “Experimental Methods for Measurement of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for Time-Delay-and-Integrate (TDI) Charge Coupled Device (CCD) Image Sensors,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 7405, p. 74050M (Aug. 2009).

J. R. Lince, H. I. Kim, P. M. Adams, et al., “CSA Materials Research Database with METADEX,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 517, No. 18, pp. 5516–5522 (July 2009).

J. R. Lince, H. I. Kim, P. M. Adams, et al., “Nanostructural, Electrical, and Tribological Properties of Composite Au-MoS2 Coatings,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 517, No. 18, pp. 5516–5522 (Switzerland, 2009).

F. E. Livingston et al., “Pyroelectric Films Synthesized by Low-Temperatures and Laser-Processed for Uncooled Infrared Detector Applications,” 2009 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (ISDRS 2009), p. 2 (Piscataway, NJ, 2009).

N. Melamed, W. H. Ailor, W. S. Campbell, et al., “Ground Assisted Rendezvous with Geosynchronous Satellites for the Disposal of Space Debris by Means of Earth-Oriented Tethers,” Acta Astronautica, Vol. 64, No. 9–10, pp. 946–951 (June 2009).

M. J. O’Brien, A. R. De La Cruz, Ching-Yao Tang, and I. A. Palusinski, “Proof Load Testing of Lightweight Silicon Carbide Mirror Substrates,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 7425, p. 74250A (Aug. 2009).

R. J. Rudy, D. K. Lynch, C. C. Venturini, S. M. Mazuk, R. C. Puetter, et al., “Toward Understanding the B[e] Phenomenon. III. Properties of the Optical Counterpart of IRAS 00470+6429,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 700, No. 1, pp. 209–220 (July 2009).

B. H. Sako, A. M. Kabe, and S. S. Lee, “Statistical Combination of Time-Varying Loads,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 47, No. 10, pp. 2338–2349 (Oct. 2009).

R. N. Schwartz, H. G. Muller, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, and R. B. Pan, “UV-Activated Paramagnetic Centers in High-Kappa Zirconia-Silica Thin Films,” Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics), Vol. 80, No. 13, p. 134102 (Oct. 2009).

R. Scrofano, P. R. Anderson, J. P. Seidel, J. D. Train, G. H. Wang, L. R. Abramowitz, J. A. Bannister, et al., “Space-Based Local Area Network,” MILCOM 2009—2009 IEEE Military Communications Conference, p. 901709 (Piscataway, NJ, 2009).

G. A. Sefler, G. C. Valley, et al., “Photonic Bandwidth Compression Front End for Digital Oscilloscopes,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 27, No. 22, pp. 5073–5077 (Nov. 2009).

E. M. Sims, “History of the Department of Defense Space Test Program,” AAS History Series, Vol. 30, History of Rocketry and Astronautics, pp. 265–278 (2009).

J. R. Srour, J. W. Palko, S. H. Liu, J. C. Nocerino, et al., “Radiation Effects and Annealing Studies on Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 56, No. 6, pp. 3300–3306 (Dec. 2009).

S. A. Sutton and J. Betser, “Knowledge Management Guided by Economic Valuation Models,” 2009 Third IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology (SMC-IT 2009), pp. 289–296 (Piscataway, NJ, 2009).

G. C. Valley, R. H. Walden, et al., “Power Scaling in Photonic Time-Stretched Analog-to-Digital Converters,” 2009 IEEE Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Phototonics and Photonics Technology Conference, pp. 5–6 (Piscataway, NJ, 2009).

N. S. Wagner et al., “BER Performance of MUOS U2B Downlink for Various Phase Noise Profiles,” MILCOM 2009—2009 IEEE Military Communications Conference, p. 7 (Piscataway, NJ, 2009).

D. B. Witkin and I. A. Palusinski, “Material Testing of Silicon Carbide Mirrors,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 7425, p. 742509 (Aug. 2009).

M. A. Zurbuchen et al., “Crossover in Thermal Transport Properties of Natural, Perovskite-Structured Superlattices,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 16, p. 161906 (Oct. 2009).


H. S. Hou, “Integrated Lifting Wavelet Transform,” U.S. Patent No. 7,552,160, June 2009.
The so-called lifting method for integer-to-integer wavelet transforms provides a powerful tool for lossless image compression—but its performance can be affected by the number of lifting steps. This wavelet transform requires fewer steps than traditional versions. It comprises four lifting stages to transform the input into a fourth highpass and a fourth lowpass output and an integrated lifting stage for processing these outputs into an integrated highpass and an integrated lowpass output. A scalar is applied to the fourth lowpass output prior to adding. When the scalar is equal to one, the integrated outputs are lossless; when it is not equal to one, the outputs are lossy. The lifting steps reduce the overall rounding errors incurred in the real-to-integer conversion process, which improves the prediction of image edges and increases the compression ratio.
P. L. Smith, “GPS Airborne Target Geolocating Method,” U.S. Patent No. RE40,800, June 2009.
Stationary beacons, including stars, are used as reference points to geolocate targets for military operations. This invention provides a method for using GPS satellites instead of stationary beacons. In a typical implementation, a higher-altitude vehicle hosts a reference beacon pointed at a lower-altitude vehicle that serves as a sensor platform for simultaneously imaging the higher-altitude beacon and target. The beacon sensor boresight is precisely aligned with the sensor boresight on the lower-altitude sensor platform, which uses relative GPS techniques to accurately geolocate the target relative to the GPS grid. This invention can be applied to the development of very low-cost short-range terminal seekers for precision-guided bombs. The method can also be used in other applications where improved boresighting accuracy is required and relative GPS navigation techniques can be employed. This patent is a reissue of a patent issued in March 2003.
W. E. Lillo et al., “Binary Offset Carrier M-Code Envelope Detector,” U.S. Patent No. 7,555,033, June 2009.
The code-tracking loops in traditional code-division multiple-access (CDMA) spread-spectrum systems are usually based on steepest-ascent algorithms. Code-tracking loops are used to align a replica code with the incoming code of the received signal; however, the correlation envelope in a binary offset carrier (BOC) signal (such as the M code) does not result in a single correlation peak. Therefore, the phase tracking of BOC codes is subject to errors because the receiver can lock on to the incorrect peak. This invention improves the tracking and receiving of M-code signals and their modulation by singling out the peak correlation. An envelope detector receives an incoming BOC signal and generates inphase and quadraphase BOC signals, separated by an offset. The generated signals each have ambiguous correlation envelopes; combining them provides a nearly unimodal correlation function. The detector is further improved through the use of code replicas having narrow partial chip phases, such as 1/8 chip phases, for providing nearly linear code-phase error tracking.
W. H. Ailor, III, “Spacecraft Hardware Tracker,” U.S. Patent No. 7,557,753, July 2009.
Modern vehicle tracking systems collect GPS data from a vehicle and transmit it via satellite to a collection point. This invention applies this type of tracking to launch hardware such as in-line fuel stages, external fuel tanks, payload fairings, and external solid rocket boosters. A primary goal is to facilitate location of impact points of launch hardware that is not designed to reach orbit. Many different launch vehicles can be fitted with lightweight, autonomous tracking devices that require only attachment, but no other service from the launch vehicle. The tracker would include its own power supply, GPS receiver, data recorder, and transmitter, enabling it to return trajectory and other data spanning from launch to impact.
G. F. Hawkins, M. J. O’Brien, “Sound Suppression Material and Method,” U.S. Patent No. 7,565,950, July 2009.
Noise suppression generally involves either passive systems, which deflect sounds or absorb them in porous material, or active systems, which cancel sounds by generating other sounds that are out of phase with the originals. This invention describes a new approach: a sound-suppression material that selectively changes the sound passing through it and uses it to destructively cancel all sound in a large area. The material comprises a base and a flexible member coupled by a passive mechanism. The passive mechanism includes levers configured to deform longitudinally and laterally and to rotate in response to sound pressure. Thus, sound pressure at the base causes the connecting mechanism to pull portions of the flexible member toward the base, thereby shifting the phase of sound waves passing through so that they destructively interfere with sound waves passing through other portions of the flexible member. The material could be made light enough for use in weight-sensitive applications.
A. A. Moulthrop, M. S. Muha, and C. P. Silva, “Baseband Time-Domain Communications Method,” U.S. Patent No. 7,583,759, Sept. 2009.
Modulated microwave signals can transmit high-bandwidth data from a ground transmitter to a satellite and back again. Such signals must be accurately measured for optimal performance. Modulated microwave signals are also used to characterize devices (such as power amplifiers) in communication systems that must accurately receive and measure nonlinear signals. This patent describes a system for minimizing inaccuracies in time-domain measurements of microwave communications signals and for removing the effects of downconverter imbalances in communication receivers. The technique entails converting the signal to a complex baseband signal composed of I and Q components that differ by π/2 phase shifts of a carrier signal provided by a local oscillator or carrier tracking loop. The baseband signal is measured or sampled twice using different phase shifts. Any I and Q imbalances and nonlinearities are indicated by differences between the two measured or sampled signals. The imbalance errors can be reduced by averaging the measurements and by optimizing the measurement system, achieving a level of accuracy sufficient for modeling communications systems.
S. H. Raghavan, J. K. Holmes, and K. P. Maine, “Code Division Multiple Access Enhanced Capacity System,” U.S. Patent No. 7,586,972, Sept. 2009.
Code division multiple access (CDMA) communication systems have limited channel capacity due to the presence of CDMA noise. This invention allows for CDMAs to overlap codes so that they can work together and increase channel capacity. The CDMA spread-spectrum communication system uses two different signal spectra generated by two different code formats—NRZ for providing nonsplit spectra with a center peak, and Manchester for providing split spectra with a center null. The spectra are combined during transmission as a CDMA communication signal with a composite spectrum.
R. B. Dybdal and S. J. Curry, “Coherently Combined Antennas,” U.S. Patent No. 7,602,336, Oct. 2009.
The capability of an antenna to receive low-level signals is limited by the antenna gain and system noise temperature. Greater capability can be obtained through a high-gain antenna—but high-gain antennas are expensive. This invention describes a way to make many smaller separate antennas work together as one large high-gain antenna. The process involves transmitting a wide-bandwidth pseudo-random calibration code from the signal source. The system electronics use the pseudorandom code to determine time delays of signals incident upon the distributed antenna elements. The signals from each element can then be corrected for amplitude and phase imperfections and coherently combined using fixed and variable true-time delay. The source signal can be transmitted separately or modulated onto the calibration code.
D. W. Warren, “Compact, High-Throughput Spectrometer Apparatus for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing,” U.S. Patent No. 7,609,381, Oct. 2009.
The Dyson spectrometer form, comprising a concave diffraction grating and single thick lens, has the potential to deliver good imaging performance and high sensitivity in a simple, compact configuration suitable for hyperspectral remote sensing from aircraft and satellites. To have the highest sensitivity, the classical Dyson spectrometer requires the output position to be in close proximity to the lens element, complicating placement of an electronic focal plane detector. This invention, by incorporating an additional correcting lens in the optical path, provides greater relief and placement flexibility for the focal plane without sacrificing performance.
H. S. Hou, “Haar Wavelet Transform Embedded Lossless Type II Discrete Cosine Transform,” “Haar Wavelet Transform Embedded Lossless Type IV Discrete Cosine Transform,” and “Shared Haar Wavelet Transform,” U.S. Patent Nos. 7,613,761, 7,634,525, and 7,640,283, Nov./Dec. 2009.
One of the major drawbacks of discrete cosine transforms (DCTs) is that they produce floating-point coefficients that have to be converted into integers. In the process, information is discarded, resulting in highly lossy data. Moreover, DCTs are implemented as single functions, so they do not share resources with other transforms. Information loss due to rounding integers can never be retrieved; however, combining the type-II and type-IV DCTs with the Haar wavelet transform allows for lossless transformation. In one configuration, a nonlinear (lossless) type-II or type IV DCT is configured as a cascade connection of a front-end shared Haar transform having many word pair-wise rotations and a back-end appended DCT. In another configuration, a shared Haar transform (which uses fix angular word pair-wise rotations) is combined in cascade fashion with an appended Haar transform (which uses adaptive angular word pair-wise rotations) to produce an extended Haar transform with increased decorrelation power. In all configurations, the integer-to-integer transforms are integrated using nonlinear lifting stages which are reversible, making the overall transforms lossless during forward and inverse transformations.
R. P. Welle, “Electro-Hydraulic Valve Apparatuses,” U.S. Patent No. 7,650,910, Jan. 2010.
Microfluidic channels in bioanalytical devices are frequently controlled using miniature pneumatic valves; however, these valves do not always provide sufficient precision and reliability. This invention describes an electro-hydraulic valve that gives more control than a comparable pneumatic unit. Created in an elastomeric material, the valve is designed with a flow channel that is crossed by a hydraulic control channel. Two Peltier devices are attached to flexible membranes that separate the control channel from the flow channel. When activated, the Peltier devices apply a hydraulic force against the membranes to deform them, thereby closing or opening the flow channel.
J. P. McKay et al., “Switched Combiner GPS Receiver System,” U.S. Patent No. 7,663,548, Feb. 2010.
The use of GPS for launch vehicle tracking often requires the use of multiple GPS receivers to ensure a strong and continuous signal. This system provides an economical way to employ several antennas with a single receiver. The antennas are mounted on opposite sides of the launch vehicle. A microwave hybrid combiner receives the antenna signals and generates two outputs representing their sum and difference. These outputs are fed into a single-pole, double-throw switch that toggles between them at a constant or periodic rate. The output of the switch is fed into the GPS receiver. The invention eliminates signal drop-outs and increases signal gain with minimal cost and complexity.
W. E. Lillo, M. Gollakota, R. K. Douglas, et al., “Ultratight Navigation Observation Lock Detector,” U.S. Patent No. 7,680,221, Mar. 2010.
GPS systems for critical applications are often coupled with inertial navigation systems to increase resistance to jamming or interference. When the inertial measurements of a navigation processor are used with a GPS signal tracking and acquisition system, the system is said to be tightly coupled. A refinement of this technique is known as ultratight coupling; in this case, the receiver does not attempt to control code replicas for exact code phase alignment with the incoming signal but merely seeks to observe the deviation of the incoming signal from locally generated replicas and feed that information back to the code replica generators. One problem with ultratight receivers is that they do not lock onto the incoming signal, so lock detectors cannot be used for signal validation. This invention describes a method for validating signals in ultratight receivers. It employs an observation lock detector that receives quadrature (I and Q) correlations from a correlator as well as residual estimates from a prefilter and noise estimates from a noise estimator. This information is transformed into correlation outputs that are then communicated to a conventional lock detector to validate the signal being fed to the Kalman filter. The process improves GPS receiver performance in low signal-to-noise environments; in addition, any errors detected can be used as a measure of performance.

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